Due to the high market turbulence, management for projects is of fundamental importance in a variety of industries and is no longer the exclusive preserve of engineering companies or software.
Many companies that have traditionally worked with production continues today committed to work for lots or facing daily problems:
> The uncertainty of revenues and on the risk profile
> The uncertainty in the lines of responsibility
> The uncertainty of delivery times and slips
> The overlapping of activities and the non-linearity of development
This phenomenon is of strategic importance, especially in small companies where the compression of time -to-market approaches dangerously development and production, transforming the production of each lot in a real project.
The reduction in inventories "just in time " , and the production on demand " pull" requires the ability to manage strategic decision-making process as much as possible in anticipation of all the design constraints ( cost, time , variants , specifications ) at the earliest stages of engagement customer ( commercial offer , tender , contract ) .
This capability is a critical success factor that allows you to identify the essential elements in complex specifications, translating immediately understandable to the specific organizational and productive.
Project management provides a set of tools to control the risk, cost, and can be activated throughout the life of the project or contract to prevent process drift or loss of control of the timing and specific quality. These tools are referred to as "key project". To understand this dynamic, it is necessary to introduce the concept of progress with respect to a baseline project. The progress, certificate by analyzing the use of resources should be monitored throughout the life cycle of the project with particular reference to the main milestones. This process occurs mainly through indicators that detect if deviations from expected performance are derived from a time factor (delays or failure) or costs (increase in the cost of raw materials or underestimation).
The analysis of deviations from the predetermined roadmap leading to the decision to compensate the non-offset.
Another area of application involves innovation projects, research and development, and change. These processes are often long-term nature do not have a direct return on production for which visas are often lack of interest in terms of priorities or mistrusted by SMEs.
This is a capital mistake because we are in a time when the taxes and contributions clearly favors the production in emerging countries; a time when the challenge of innovation is a matter of survival because you cannot compete in the classical dimension of productivity.
Since the resources of SMEs are necessarily limited need to “drive " the research and development through a portfolio of projects that are consistent , taking into account the allocation of resources and risk over time.
It is thinking about a long-term strategy based on product platforms and technology families "group technology" that allow one part of maximizing the return on investment and on the other to generate distinctive technological capabilities can ensure a sustainable competitive advantage that puts the company away from the market turmoil. In the quest, area is of particular importance:
> The management of multi-project environment and interdependencies where some scarce resources generate a cascading effect on distinct projects
> The problem of “moving target " where small delays in time-to -market are likely to "burn" the results to technological obsolescence , competition, costs